OVERVIEW OF CLIMATE AND HEALTH IN TANZANIA

Tanzania is already experiencing increased climate variability and climate change, resulting in increasing temperature, late rainfall onset, decreasing rainfall amounts and shifts in pattern rainfall. According to the WHO UNFCCC Climate Change and Health Country Profile for Tanzania, under a high emissions scenario, mean annual temperature is projected to rise by about 4.7°C on average from 1990 to 2100. If global emissions decrease rapidly, the temperature rise is limited to about 1.2°C.

Under a high emissions scenario, 808,200 people annually are projected to be affected by flooding due to sea level rise between 2070 and 2100. Flooding causes extensive indirect health effects, including impacts on food production, water provision, ecosystem disruption, infectious disease outbreak and vector distribution. Vector-borne diseases, diarrhoeal diseases and malnutrition are all influenced by seasonal, inter-annual climate variability, and are predicted to increase with increasing temperatures.

For more information on climate and health in Tanzania, read the WHO UNFCCC Tanzania Country Profile here.

ACTIVITIES

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GFCS Adaptation Programme in Africa

Organizations involved: WMO, CCAFS, CICERO, CMI, IFRC, WFP, WHO

Description: Global Framework for Climate Service implementation at a national level is bringing sectoral partners together to enhance user-driven climate services for food security, disaster risk reduction, and health.

Website: http://www.gfcs-climate.org/Norway_2

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Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR)

Organizations involved: WHO TDR, IDRC

Description: The programme focuses on social and environmental factors affecting the transmission and control of vector-borne diseases

Website: http://www.who.int/hac/crises/el-nino/en/

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ENACTS – Enhancing National Climate Services Initiative

Organizations involved: IRI, DFID, GFCS

Description: The Enhancing National Climate Services (ENACTS) initiative transforms local, national and regional climate-sensitive development decisions through the widespread uptake of timely, relevant, locally-enhanced and quality-assured climate information at relevant spatial and temporal scales.

Website: https://iri.columbia.edu/resources/enacts/

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HyCRISTAL

Organizations involved: DFID, NERC, Walker Institute, University of Leeds, African Centre for Technology Studies, Tanzania Meteorological Agency, Ugandan National Meteorological Authority

Description: The objective of this multi-disciplinary study is to better understand, and improve the projections of, the effects of climate change on rural livelihoods and urban infrastructure in the Lake Victoria basin. This will allow for policymakers to create better informed policy. This study involves meteorologists, hydrologists, engineers, agronomists, fisheries experts and social scientists working in East Africa.

Website: http://www.futureclimateafrica.org/project/hycristal/

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Building adaptation to climate change in health in least developed countries through resilient water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)

Organizations involved: The Department for International Development (DFID), WHO

Description: The objective of the project is to support the development of a common operational framework to build climate resilience, support revision of climate-resilient and health promoting policies for water management and WASH, and pilot climate-resilient water safety plans and household interventions.

Website: http://www.who.int/globalchange/projects/wash/en/

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Health Futures Atlas

Organizations involved: A consortium of 16 universities

Description: This is a publicly available resource for evaluating climate change risks on water-related and vector-borne disease. It is a user-targeted online platform that allows health professionals and decision makers to visually examine projected transmission risk for malaria, schistosomiasis and Rift Valley fever, as well as the state of several indicators of social vulnerability.

Website: http://www.healthyfutures.eu/

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Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessments

Organizations involved: WHO, GIZ

Description: V&A Assessments build capacity, establish partnerships, and provide actionable information for decision-makers on health risks associated with climate, and identify priority policies and programmes to prevent or reduce the severity of future impacts.

Website: http://www.climhealthafrica.org/projects-vulnerability-and-adaptation-assessments

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HISTORY OF CLIMATE AND HEALTH ACTION IN TANZANIA

June 1992
April 1996
August 2002
January 2006
August 2009
January 2012
February 2014
May 2014
August 2014
December 2014
July 2015
January 2016
October 2016
April 2016
November 2016

June 1992

On 12 June 1992, Tanzania signs the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which defines the adverse effects of climate change as inclusive of human health and welfare. The definition also includes the notion of equity of production, including for future generations.

April 1996

On 17 April 1996, Tanzania ratifies the UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), showing the country’s commitment to addressing climate change issues nationally and globally through cooperation.

August 2002

On 26 August 2002, Tanzania ratifies the Kyoto Protocol, which commits 128 participating countries to cut emissions of greenhouse gases by over 5% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. The Protocol is the first step towards reducing global impact on the climate system, thereby working to mitigate the impacts of climate change on human health.

January 2006

Tanzania develops its National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA) by evaluating the impacts of adverse climatic conditions in seven key sectors of economic growth, including the human health sector, and ranks the identified activities using multi-criteria analysis to arrive at a list of fourteen urgent and immediate priority needs for adaptation.

August 2009

Tanzania signs the Libreville Declaration on Health and Environment in Africa, which stands as the umbrella framework upon which African countries and their development partners coherently address environmental determinants of human health.

January 2012

A national stakeholder workshop is held in January 2012 to validate the final draft of the National Climate Change Strategy. The Strategy highlights human health as one of the major areas of climate change impact and includes the development of sufficient capacities within social facilities to address climate change related health risks as a key cross cutting objective.

February 2014

The GFCS Climate Services Adaptation for Africa program is launched in Tanzania and Malawi. A kick-off meeting in Dar es Salaam brings together 40 stakeholders from various sectors. The meeting identifies the main challenges to establishing a National Framework for Climate Services and establishes a Climate and Health Project Delivery Team (PDT) to oversee all GFCS activities in Tanzania.

May 2014

The Tanzania National Consultation Workshop for Climate Services is held in Dar es Salaam. The workshop aims to identify the institutional and operational needs, gaps, and capacities for climate services in agriculture, food security, health, and disaster risk reduction sectors in Tanzania.

August 2014

The Roll Back Malaria Partnership holds an executive briefing on strengthening national climate data and information for malaria decision-making in Africa. This executive briefing and national stakeholder consultation provide an overview of existing programs and research using climate science and information in operational malaria research.

December 2014

The WHO develops a number of informational educational and communication materials on climate and health to be used with a number of audiences in the country. Materials developed include leaflets that address the impacts of climate change on health, water, and environment in Tanzania, and posters and leaflets that address the association of climate change with the implementation of Water Safety Plans in urban water utilities.

July 2015

The Tanzania Meteorological Agency and the WMO conducts a training workshop in Dar es Salaam on climate modeling for weather experts from Tanzania and Malawi. The training aims to develop a capacity for climate model analysis and climate change impact assessments.

January 2016

In order to build awareness and improve communication regarding the health impacts of climate, the Government of Tanzania publishes a National Climate Change and Health Communication Strategy in January 2016. In February 2017, key stakeholders meet to validate the Strategy.

October 2016

A four-day training held in Morogoro is held with 33 participants, mostly health officers from around the country. The training aims to equip participants with the necessary skills and knowledge for dealing with and managing the impacts of climate variability and change on health in Tanzania.

April 2016

On 22 April 2016, Tanzania signs the Paris Agreement, which not only sets ambitious aims to curb greenhouse gas emissions, but pushes countries to develop adaptation plans that will protect human health from the worst impacts of climate change, such as droughts, heat waves, and floods.

November 2016

Tanzania hosts the Programme Steering Committee for the GFCS Adaptation Programme in Africa. The meeting aims to review progress on programme implementation and share experiences, challenges, and lessons learned that will inform the design of Phase II of the programme, which starts in 2017. The meeting also includes an indigenous knowledge write-up workshop and participatory planning with partners from the countries’ project delivery teams.

NATIONAL POLICY RESPONSE

The WHO and UNFCCC Climate and Health Country Profiles (2015) provide a standard framework for gauging national policy responses to climate and health issues. The table below shows the latest information for Tanzania, updated in 2016.

GOVERNANCE AND POLICY

Country has identifed a national focal point for climate change in the Ministry of Health
Country has a national health adaptation strategy approved by relevant government body
The National Communication submitted to UNFCCC includes health implications of climate change mitigation policies

HEALTH ADAPTATION IMPLEMENTATION

Country is currently implementing projects or programs on health adaptation to climate change
Country has implemented actions to build institutional and technical capacities to work on climate change and health
Country has conducted a national assessment of climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation for health
Country has climate information included in Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system, including development of early warning and response systems for climate-sensitive health risks
Country has implemented activities to increase climate resilience of health infrastructure

FINANCING AND COSTING MECHANISMS

Estimated costs to implement health resilience to climate change included in planned allocations from domestic funds in the last financial biennium
Estimated costs to implement health resilience to climate change included in planned allocations from international funds in the last fnancial biennium

HEALTH ADAPTATION IMPLEMENTATION

The national strategy for climate change mitigation includes consideration of the health implications (health risks or co-benefts) of climate change mitigation actions
Country has conducted valuation of co-benefts of health implications of climate mitigation policies